Three kinds of activity easily integrate into witing-intensive courses. First are the ones activities which focus only from the CONTENT, such as for instance lectures and discussions of texts. Second are activities related solely to WRITING as separate from the content concerns regarding the course. Grammar drills or sentence combining exercises fall into this category, but so would lecturing on writing in general or examining types of good writing regardless of this content. Third are activities which teach BOTH WRITING AND CONTENT. Peer critiquing, journal writing, and group brainstorming teach both writing and content as does examining model essays that are chosen for both the quality of the writing plus the worth of the content. The following advice are meant to show how writing could be taught not only as a mechanical skill (through sentence and paragraph modeling), nor merely whilst the display of data (by concentrating solely on content), but as a generative intellectual activity with its own right. They’ve been based on three premises:
that students can learn a deal that is great themselves as writers by becoming more careful readers;
that astute readers attend to the dwelling associated with text and discover that analyzing the author’s choices at specific junctures provides them with a surer, more grasp that is detailed of;
That students can give their writing more direction and focus by thinking about details as areas of an entire, whether that whole be a sentence, paragraph, or chapter.
Thus, awareness of a discipline’s language, methodology, formal conventions, and ways of creating context–as these are illustrated in texts, lectures, and student papers–is an write my paper way that is effective of writing.
Summary and Analysis Exercises
A) Have students write a 500-word summary of about 2000 words of text; then a 50-word summary; then a sentence summary that is single. Compare results for inclusivity, accuracy, emphasis, and nuance.
B) Analyze a text section or chapter. How is it constructed? What has got the author done to make the Parts soon add up to an argument?
C) Analyze a paragraph that is particularly complex a text. How is it come up with? What gives it unity? What role does it play in the chapter that is entire portion of text?
Organizational Pattern Work
A) Scramble a paragraph and ask students: 1) to put it together; 2) to touch upon the mental processes involved within the restoration, the decisions about continuity they had in order to make centered on their feeling of the writer’s thinking.
B) Have students find several kinds of sentences in a text, and explain exactly, in the terms and spirit for the text, what these sentences are meant to do: juxtapose, equate, polarize, rank, distinguish, make exceptions, concede, contrast. Often, needless to say, sentences is going to do two or more of those things at once.
C) Have students examine an author’s punctuation and explain, again in terms of the argument, why, say, a semicolon was used.
D) Have students outline as a means of analyzing structure and discuss the choices a writer makes and just how these choices subscribe to attaining the writer’s purpose.
Formulation of Questions and Acceptability of Evidence
A) exactly what do be treated as known? What is acceptable procedure for ruling cases in or out?
B) Discuss how evidence is tested against an hypothesis, and how hypotheses are modified. (How models are made and put on data; how observations turn into claims, etc.)
C) Examine cause and effect; condition and result; argumentative strategies, such as comparison-contrast, and agency (especially the application of verbs), as basic building blocks in definition and explanation.
Peer critiquing and discussion of student writing may be handled in a true number of various ways. The objective of such activities is always to have students read the other person’s writing and develop their own critical faculties, with them to assist one another improve their writing. Peer critiquing and discussion help students know the way their own writing compares with that of these peers and helps them find the characteristics that distinguish successful writing. It is vital to keep in mind that a teacher criticizing a text for a class just isn’t peer critiquing; with this will likely not give the students practice in exercising their particular skills that are critical. Here are some types of various ways this is handled, and we also encourage you to modify these to match your own purposes.
A) The Small Groups Model–The class is divided into three categories of five students each. Each the student submits six copies of his or her paper, one for the instructor and one for each member of her group week. 1 hour per is devoted to group meetings in which some or all of the papers in the group are discussed week. Before this combined group meeting, students must read most of the papers from their group and must write comments to be shared with one other writers. Thus, weekly writing, reading and critiquing are a part of the course, and students develop skills through repeated practice that they will be not able to develop if only asked to critique on three or four occasions. Because the teacher is present with every group, they are able to lead the discussion to greatly help students improve these critical skills.
B) The Pairs Model–Students can be paired off to learn and comment on one another’s writing such that each student will get written comments from one other student plus the teacher. The teacher can, of course, check out the critical comments plus the paper to simply help students develop both writing and skills that are critical. This method requires no special copying and need take very classroom time that is little. The teacher may wish to allow some time for the pairs to discuss one another’s work, or this could be done not in the class. The disadvantage of this method is that the teacher cannot guide the discussions and students are limited by comments from just one of the peers.
C) Small Groups within Class–Many teachers break their classes into small groups (from 3 to 7 students) and invite class time when it comes to groups to critique. The teacher can circulate among groups or sit in on an entire session with one group.
D) Critiques and Revision–Many teachers combine peer critiquing with required revisions to teach students how to improve not just their mechanical skills, but also their thinking skills. Students may have comments that are critical their-teachers as well as from their peers to work with. Some teachers would like to have students revise a draft that is first only comments from their peers and then revise a moment time on the basis of the teacher’s comments.
E) Student Critiques–Students must certanly be taught how exactly to critique each other’s work. Some direction while some teachers may leave the nature of the response up to the students, most try to give their students.
1) Standard Critique Form–This is a collection of questions or guidelines general adequate to be applicable to virtually any writing a student might do. In English classes, the questions pay attention to such staples of rhetoric as audience, voice and purpose; in philosophy, they could guide the student to examine the logic or structure of a quarrel.
2) Assignment Critique Form–This is a couple of questions designed specifically for a writing task that is particular. Such a form gets the advantageous asset of making students attend to the aspects that are special to the given task. If students use them repeatedly, however, they may become dependent they critique on them, never asking their own critical questions of the texts.
3) Descriptive Outline–Instead of providing questions to direct students, some teachers would rather teach their students to create a “descriptive outline.” The student reads the paper and stops to write after each and every section or paragraph, recording what she or he thought the section said and his or her responses or questions concerning it. The student writes his or her “summary comments” describing his or her reaction to the piece as a whole, raising questions about the writing, and perhaps making suggestions for further writing at the end.
Since writing by itself is of value, teachers do not need to grade all writing assignments–for instance journals, exploratory writing, and early drafts of more formal pieces. Teachers may make many comments on such writing to help students further their thinking but may wait for a far more finished, formal product before assigning grades.